(1) Apprehension: You represent some sort of threat to another person (or animal).
(2) Ego driven: Someone wishes to exert social dominance or has perceived an affront from you.
(3) Rage or emotionally disturbed: You become the target because the attacker is independently set off by something real or perceived.
(4) Criminal: You have something the attacker wants.
(1) Social Violence
Humans have subconscious rules governing social violence. The contest of teaching someone a lesson by asserting social dominance by either intimidation or physical force usually does not involve grave injuries or murderous intent. Yet, you should never underestimate the capability, determination, or cunning of an attacker. Generally, someone will only attack if the person thinks he can physically win. A criminal or sociopath may have little formal fight or martial arts training, however, the attacker compensates for this with a deeply embedded, unflappable resolve to injure you.
When facing the specter of social violence, if nobody contact is made with you, as glib as it may sound, if there is “no harm, (then there is) no foul.” Despite any indignation or effrontery you may experience, walk away from the situation. Perhaps, by adopting the mind-set that it was the aggressor’s lucky day or that you would have “beat him down” you can more easily swallow your ego and disengage. The flip side is that you do not know what the aggressor’s capabilities and intent are. So, in either case, use common sense, not inflamed emotions, to carry the day and walk away. Founder Imi Lichtenfeld emphasized, “The most necessary thing, is to educate you—and that is the hardest thing—to be humble. You must be so humble that you don’t want to show him that you’re better than him. That is one of the most necessary things for pupils. If a pupil tells me, ‘I fought him and beat him,’ it’s no good.”
Scientists have noted that evolution wired our brains to generally avoid killing (a hardwired safety mechanism) when testing social dominance. With animal and humans alike, hierarchical conflict is rarely lethal, but males, in particular, often have difficulty backing down from status conflict. The reality is that some people will tolerate effrontery and abuse while others will not. Those who are intolerant of challenges may have a shorter or longer fuse, but eventually, this fuse will ignite.
Amateur social violence occurs, for example, when Aggressor #1 (A1) is not entirely committed to injuring Aggressor #2 (A2). A1 hopes one combative will likely hurt or subdue, but, importantly, not injure A2 to deter him from continuing. In summary, the goal of amateur violence is to “put a hurt” on someone, but not to truly injure the attacker. The takeaway is that you should recognize impending social violence and not let it control or dictate your future.
(2) Criminal Violence
When confronting possible criminal violence, it is axiomatic that your life and well-being are not worth trading for any possessions. A criminal uses violence as a physical tool to acquire valuables. If someone is threatening you, especially with a weapon or if you are clearly outnumbered, comply with the criminal’s demands—if you can. If you cannot comply with the aggressor’s demands, and reasoning with the aggressor has failed and there is no escape, take the fight to your assailant to neutralize him. As noted, maintaining an overall strategy to end your attacker’s ability to harm you is paramount.
While criminal or sociopathic violence is less likely, these categories must be dealt with differently than social violence. There is no opt-out option. (Remember there is an opt-out option when confronting social violence.) Generally, under these circumstances, an aggressor cannot be reasoned with or “talked down.” There is no disengagement strategy available to you—other than to use superior counterviolence. If your actions require a forceful and debilitating counterviolent response, krav maga provides it.
(3) Raw Criminal Violence
Raw criminal violence is more prevalent in isolated places, which provides privacy for predators. Criminology studies underscore that criminals usually rely more on intent rather than a specific (trained) method of violence. Criminals do not operate using the same set of accepted social beliefs of their victims who respect the social contract and obey the law.
Professional military and law enforcement personnel use overwhelming violence of action and a preponderance of firepower. Criminals try to do the same. The predatory assault mind-set is ruthless. Some attackers view their targets as humans while other sociopath attackers can “dehumanize” or make someone an outsider thereby denying any social contract. “Dehumanizing” can pave the way for violence by distinguishing or rationalizing another person’s humanity away. The attacker need not necessarily be physically skilled. If he succeeds in stunning the victim, he can compound the damage requiring little ability other than targeting the victim’s vulnerable anatomy.
(4) Emotionally Disturbed Violence
When dealing with an aggressor with an altered mind, rational rules of human behavior do not apply. One solution when dealing with a mentally impaired aggressive individual is to avoid direct eye contact while listening passively and disarmingly. Nevertheless, expect the unexpected and, accordingly, be prepared physically. A sociopath views asocial criminal violence as a useful tool. Pleading with a sociopath usually will not succeed. To counter asocial criminal violence where there may be no quarter given to you, you must break down the attacker’s body.
Note: Rape can fall into both criminal and sociopathic categories.
Noncoincidentally, krav maga’s core method of using optimized counterviolence—retzev—may be compared to the type of professional or military assault discussed above. Accordingly, under the strict legal underpinnings of self-defense, if attacked, the kravist must become the more violently capable person wielding greater counterforce to defeat the threat. Targeted counterviolence designed to injure an attacker leads to a conclusive result: the scale of physical power tilts in the kravist’s favor.
Social Violence (Unspoken Rules) vs. Raw Violence (No Rules)
Social Violence vestige of rules (mayhem/death is not the preferred outcome) Raw Violence no rules (resulting in mayhem/death)
Tactical and Strategic Thinking for Men and Women Alike
Both men and women alike should try to achieve a paradoxical balance between: (1) living without fear and (2) paranoia. Constant vigilance drains energy and cannot be maintained. Therefore, your radar has to adapt to ping what generally seems to be out of the ordinary. Awareness provides you time to recognize threats and to act, rather than react. Awareness of what is behind you could be more important than what is in front of you. Obviously, the best way to catch someone by surprise is from the rear. First impressions or gut feelings are usually correct. Trust your intuition; don’t dismiss it. If you recognize that something is amiss, beware. Your intuition is undergirded by your experience and accompanying knowledge.
When there is no other choice, you may be compelled to maim, cripple, and even use lethal force against an attacker—provided the respective circumstances are legally justifiable. Breaking bones and disabling ligaments, destroying an eyeball, etc., are optimized both tactically and strategically to end the attack. In the basest, animalistic sense, the kravist, when faced with a life-threatening situation, understands how to inflict terrible, debilitating wounds against an adversary. Once again, there is no pity or humanity in a visceral self-defense situation provided the counterforce is legally justifiable. In general terms, the party who significantly damages the other party first usually prevails provided he presses the counterattack home to neutralize the threat.
Violence Against Women
Violence against women often involvesmen who seek status by targeting women to assert dominance. Many female victims know their attackers. Sexual predators and other attackers often approach their victims with innocuous behavior such as friendly conversation. Sometimes, a potential assailant will put his hand on a woman to gauge her initial reaction. If she is not assertive in warning him off, he may have found a potential victim in his mind. If she opposes him either verbally or physically or both, he has found someone who will actively resist, and, therefore, is likely a less successful target.
Generally, the male attacker believes he can assault a woman and come away unscathed physically. (This is true of most attackers regardless of the attacker or victim’s respective genders.) According to Professor James Giannini of Ohio State University, female rape victims are often less attuned to interpreting nonverbal facial cues of an assailant. This situational awareness shortcoming may make them miss the all-important warning signs of aggressive criminal intent. The same research suggests that rapists are more capable than average to interpret facial cues in women who will not resist. Predatory men understand that social conditioning for women teaches placating or submission as women are frequently conditioned to interact with men verbally rather than offer physical resistance.
Violence against women often involves close proximity or “infighting,” especially during a sexual assault. It is often ingrained that resistance will trigger a more severe onslaught. Yet, according to the National Institute of Justice, “Most self-protective actions significantly reduce the risk that a rape will be completed. In particular, certain actions reduce the risk of rape more than 80 percent compared to nonresistance. The most effective actions, according to victims, are attacking or struggling against their attacker, running away, and verbally warning the attacker.”
Ignoring unsolicited entreaties will serve you well. You need not be civil if your instincts tell you to behave otherwise. Be sure to understand the difference between an aggressive and assertive response when confronting a possible threat. Assertiveness is essential and one of the most effective strategies to preventing assault. If you lack assertiveness, you can develop this deterrence capability by modifying your body posture. Holding your head high, presenting a comfortable and confident demeanour, maintaining eye contact, clutching a weapon of opportunity, and moving with a purpose will help de-victimize you. Studies show that criminals often target people who do not walk with confidence, pay attention, or have coordinated gait. These people appeared to the criminal to be easy targets who are not likely to fight back.